Regional Highlights Pacific Northwest
Pollution Prevention Roundtable
March 10-11, 1999 in Portland, Oregon — Roundtable Report Digest

The following information is summarized from the March 1999 Northwest Regional Pollution Prevention Roundtable meeting. A full meeting report is also available.



Goals of the meeting included: 1) Build understanding of connections between pollution prevention and sustainable development, including the role of land use planning and zoning, 2) Generate ideas for incorporating sustainable development ideas into agency programs, 3) Share information on practical measurement approaches for P2 programs, 4) Learn about issues of importance to NGOs. Audiences were pollution prevention technical assistance providers and policy staff, and Industrial Technical Assistance Providers (ITAP).



Wayne Lei, PGE

Lei welcomed the group and briefly discussed the U.S. Department of Energy's Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. To find out more, visit



Plenary Session - Sustainable Development and P2

David Kunz, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

Dan Saltzman, Portland City Commissioner

A number of Portland-area businesses are incorporating sustainable practices into their operations. Examples include Rejuvenation, Epson America, Sulzer Bingham Pumps, and Collins Pine. The city government is seeking better integration of development and sustainability activities. The city is exploring adoption of an ISO 14001-certified environmental management system and conservation-based water pricing. The city gives annual BEST awards to businesses for energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste reduction and transportation alternatives.

Sustainability Resources:
PPRC Library -
Ecotrust -
Livable Oregon -
Sustainable Northwest -
Sustainable Seattle -
World Resources Institute -
Center for Excellence for Sustainable Development -

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Industry and Sustainable Development

David Kunz, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

Morgan Rider, LSI Logic - 503-618-4755,,
Jill Peterson, Nike - 503-532-0316,
Dick Crosbie, Nike - 503-671-6453,
Connie Grenz, Collins Pine - 503-471-2234,,
Jim Whitty, Center for Watershed and Community Health
     503-293-7201 or 541-744-7072,

Morgan Rider: Employees at the Gresham, Ore., plant are held accountable for environmental performance. Since 1987 LSI Logic has reduced hazardous waste 88 percent company-wide. Sustainability measures adopted by the company include resale of process chemicals, water reclamation, stormwater infiltration, transit passes for all employees, energy-efficient lighting and HVAC, and reduction of paper use through an on-line accounting system.

Jill Peterson: Nike formed an environmental action team in 1993 to develop sustainability projects and policies. Examples include no use of wood or pulp products from old-growth or frontier forests; use of organic cotton in T-shirts, and a company headquarters building in the Netherlands that includes daylighting, energy-efficient HVAC, native landscaping, and a stormwater catchment system. Nike uses The Natural Step framework and five principles developed by Peter Senge, chairman of the Society for Organizational Learning.

Dick Crosbie: Nike is reducing use of solvent-based adhesives, primers, mold release agents and degreasers. Between 1993 and 1998, solvent consumption per pair of shoes was cut 74 percent. Nike is exploring a shoe lease concept and is exploring control of purchases by outsource manufacturing plants.

Connie Grenz: Collins Pine has adopted The Natural Step framework. Production at the company's Klamath Falls mill site was stopped unit by unit at various times in 1997 so employees could learn about sustainability plans. Employee teams develop energy efficiency, water efficiency, recycling, litter pickup, and air quality projects. A product packaging and design team will be formed this year. Examples of projects include reuse of sander dust, reduction in compressed air consumption, improved steam efficiency, water efficiency, and return of pallets to vendors for reuse.

Jim Whitty: HB 3135, a bill in the Oregon Legislature, would mandate study of an integrated sustainable development strategy for the state, using a performance-based regulatory system. The Oregon Progress Board will release a state of the environment report in December 1999. (For more information about this project, visit

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Breakouts - Integrating P2 and Sustainable Development

Breakout groups brainstormed a wide variety of ideas for integrating sustainable practices into P2 programs. Ideas included environmental management policies, in-house education, green procurement, regulatory policies and incentives, and alternative transportation.

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Program Updates

John Palmer, EPA Region 10

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services (BES)
     Margaret Nover, 503-823-7623,
     Gary Barnes, 503-823-7383,
     Kelly Hendryx, 503-823-7585,

Portland Energy Office

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)
     David Kunz, 503-229-6237,

Washington Department of Ecology
     Judy Kennedy, 360-407-6744,
     Hugh O'Neill, 360-407-6354,

Idaho Division of Environmental Quality
     John Bernardo, 208-373-0114,

EPA Headquarters
     Sam Sasnett, 202-260-8020,
     Julie Shannon, 202-260-2736,

PPRC is drafting a topical report on PBTs that will be posted in the near future. Contact Chris Wiley (206-352-2050, for more information.

National Pollution Prevention Roundtable
     Marianne Fitzgerald (Region 10 representative on NPPR board)

Thurston County, Washington
     Thuy Vu, 360-754-4111,

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
     Tapio Kuusinen, 509-372-4234,

EPA Region 10
     Carolyn Gangmark, 206-553-4072,
     John Palmer, 206-553-6521,

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


PBTs and Health

David Kunz, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

Eric Dover, Physicians for Social Responsibility

Persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs) include halogenated pesticides, industrial chemicals and unwanted byproducts of industrial processes. They are mobile, resist breakdown in the environment, bioaccumulate in the food chain, and cause a variety of health disorders in people and wildlife. Examples of PBTs include dioxins, furans, PCBs, mercury, and a number of banned pesticides, including DDT, toxaphene and chlordane.

Health impacts include endocrine disruption, which can result in immune system suppression, increased cancer incidence, and reproductive disorders. Genetic effects can result in learning disabilities and other disorders in children of parents exposed to PBTs. Other effects may include neurotoxicity, skin disease, and hepatitic effects. In women, breast cancer incidence has risen from 80 per 100,000 in 1973 to 110 per 100,000 in 1991. Odds of contracting breast cancer have increased from 1 in 20 in 1950 to 1 in 8 by 1998. In males, a French study showed a one-third reduction in sperm count between 1973 and 1992. Testicular cancer incidence rose from 3 per 100,000 in 1973 to 5 per 100,000 in 1991.

PBT Resources
Washington Department of Ecology -
Special Report on Environmental Endocrine Disruption: An Effects Assessment and Analysis, Risk Assessment Forum, EPA -
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry -
U.N. Environment Programme -
Rachel's Environmental and Health Weekly -
Chlorine Chemistry Council library -

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.



On-Line Fact Sheets in 10 Minutes or Less: Quick Tips for Non-Geeks

To obtain copies of tip sheets on easy ways to create web pages, contact Catherine Dickerson ( or Crispin Stutzman ( at the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center, 206-352-2050.

Measurement Workshop

Madeline Sten, PPRC

David Kunz, Oregon DEQ - 503-229-6237,
Bart Collinsworth, Oregon DEQ - 503-378-8240,
Marianne Fitzgerald, Oregon DEQ - 503-229-5946,,
John Palmer, EPA Region 10, 206-553-6521,,

David Kunz: Sustainable development is being incorporated into DEQ's strategic plan. Measurement will be conducted with indicators, program outcomes (environmental results) and program outputs (activities). There are a number of ways to measure sustainability. One is the concept of "ecological footprint" - the amount of land needed to supply a given population's level of resource consumption.

Bart Collinsworth: DEQ's hazardous waste program has three goals: 1) waste minimization and prevention, 2) safe management of hazardous chemicals, 3) remediation of unauthorized releases. Goals have objectives and outcome metrics that will be used statewide. Examples of outcome metrics are amount of toxics reduced as a result of site visits, and quantity of toxics used over time.

John Palmer: EPA has negotiated core performance measures with the Environmental Council of the States ( The measures are structured as a hierarchy, starting with indicators, then moving down through outcomes and outputs. P2 objectives in EPA's strategic plan include reduced pesticide risks, reduced blood lead level in children, improved indoor air quality, reduced toxics disposal, reductions in quantity and toxicity of wastes, and environmental assessment of tribal lands.

Marianne Fitzgerald: Tom Neltner of Indiana DEM and Ken Zarker of TNRCC have proposed a national P2 index that would reflect broad trends. The index would be representative, much like the Dow Jones Industrial Average is a representative measure of stock market performance. The Northeast Waste Management Officials Association (NEWMOA) has drafted a menu of 41 metrics P2 programs could use.

Discussion: Requiring measurement programs to produce exact computations of results may be counterproductive. Both numbers and anecdotes are necessary to report performance. Fish could be a relevant framework for a Region 10 pilot measurement project, because it is a visible public issue. Other measurement frameworks speaking to immediate public concerns include health of children and elderly, drinking water safety, earthquake preparedness, and reproductive disorders. As a result of the discussion, a decision was made for Oregon DEQ and EPA Region 10 to take the lead on a measurement project. For more information, contact David Kunz or John Palmer (contact information above).

Measurement Resource:
PPRC Topical Report -

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Sustainable Development and Making Local Connections

Margaret Nover, Portland Bureau of Environmental Services

John Hall, Portland Development Commission
Lynn Beaton, Oregon Economic Development Department
Ed McNamara, Prendergast & Associates
Greg Acker, Ecotrust
Thuy Vu, Thurston County Environmental Health Department
Kendra Smith, Washington County Unified Sewerage Agency
Bob Glascock, Portland Bureau of Planning
Greg East, Portland Bureau of Water Works

John Hall: Economic development in Portland is carried out within a growth management framework. Under state law, development in the Portland metropolitan area is constrained by an urban growth boundary. Metro, an elected regional government, has prepared the 2040 Regional Framework Plan to guide land use planning. The framework plan is designed to accommodate population growth and preserve the area's livability. Public opinion is largely in favor of keeping the urban growth boundary in place. Portland has a strong economy. Constraints on development include a shortage of large parcels, transportation infrastructure, and endangered species listings.

Lynn Beaton: Governor Kitzhaber has established state and regional community solutions teams to develop an integrated state investment plan that preserves livability, promotes a strong economy, and targets growth to economically distressed areas. Through the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds, locally based watershed councils are initiating habitat protection and restoration projects in response to endangered salmon and steelhead listings.

Ed McNamara: Buckman Heights is a 144-unit, mixed-income apartment complex in Portland that incorporates sustainability features, including recycled construction materials, low-VOC paints, stormwater infiltration, bicycle and car share parking, and energy and water-efficient fixtures. The project will be adjacent to commercial uses, and buildings were designed to provide a pleasant pedestrian-oriented environment. The project was built with mainstream financing, architects, and contractors, and is designed to turn a profit.

Greg Acker: Ecotrust is renovating a 114-year-old warehouse in Portland, using passive systems and low-tech solutions to make the best use of natural light and energy. The project's goals are: 1) help restore an urban ecosystem, 2) advance the art of ecological design, and 3) strengthen rural-urban links. The building is scheduled to open in 2001, and Ecotrust expects the building to turn a profit.

Thuy Vu: Thurston County carried out a technical assistance program as part of its wellhead protection program. Three-fourths of visited business found technical assistance visits to be helpful.

Kendra Smith: Urbanization and the resulting impervious surfaces disturb watersheds by upsetting stream hydrology and increasing erosion. Watershed protection and restoration is a key goal of an industrial wastewater line construction project in the Dawson Creek watershed. Elements of the plan include protecting the creek's natural features, acquiring buffers, restoring habitat, and managing stormwater. Intel, which has a plant nearby, is looking at ways to reduce impervious surfaces in new developments and infiltrating stormwater in existing developments.

Bob Glascock and Greg East: The city is using protective zoning to protect aquifers in an area east of the city targeted for industrial development. Risky land uses, materials and processes are prohibited. Among them are chemical manufacturing, wood preservation, used battery processing and recycling, and storage of petroleum products (except for fleet vehicle fuel) and halogenated pesticides.

Discussion: Energy is the most important consideration for reducing a building's life-cycle costs. Regulatory fees should be structured to encourage sustainable behavior. For example, link sewer hookup fees to a project's water efficiency. The more efficient the project, the lower the fee. Building codes and policies should be integrated to promote sustainability.

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Non-Government Organization (NGO) Issues

Catherine Dickerson, PPRC

Alan Hipolito, Urban League of Portland, Coalition for a Livable Future
Nina Bell, Northwest Environmental Advocates
Jeff Allen, Oregon Environmental Council (OEC)

Alan Hipolito: Environmental racism has two aspects: 1) disparate exposure of low-income communities and communities of color to impacts of new projects and old environmental problems, and 2) limited access to decision-making about projects that affect those communities. Traditional civil rights laws are not effective for addressing environmental issues. Citizen lawsuit provisions in environmental laws are more effective. Mainstream environmental groups and regulatory agencies can be of service to community groups, but the burden of proof is on them to establish trusting relationships. Environmental groups must not take issues away from communities, and regulators must ensure there is meaningful community participation in decision-making.

Environmental Justice/Environmental Racism Resources:
EPA Office of Environmental Justice -
EcoJustice Network -
Community Coalition for Environmental Justice -
Oregon Environmental Council EJ Program -

Nina Bell: TMDLs are a process for cleaning up bodies of water that do not meet clean water standards necessary for protecting beneficial uses. TMDLs set pollution "budgets" for water bodies and allocate allowable pollution levels to point and non-point sources. For point sources, implementation can be tied to NPDES permits. For non-point sources, implementation can be complex. To be effective, TMDLs need implementation plans that include monitoring and schedules. Water quality standards should be interpreted broadly, including numerical and narrative criteria.

TMDL Resources:
EPA Office of Water TMDL Program -
Washington Department of Ecology TMDLs Page -
Oregon 303(d) List -

Jeff Allen: Market prices do not always provide information on environmental costs, resulting in inefficiency and resource depletion. Pollution charges, marginal costing and "tax shifting" are three ways to address this problem. The premise of tax shift is to reduce taxes on societal "goods" such as income and increase them on societal "bads" such as pollution. HB 2473, a bill in the Oregon Legislature, would mandate a study of tax shift.

Tax Shift Resources:
Northwest Environment Watch -
OEC Green Taxes Program -
Minnesotans for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Ecological Tax Reform Program -

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


Favorite Failures

Dave Rozell, Oregon DEQ, 503-229-5918,

The purpose of the session was to share revealing stories about technical assistance failures and lessons learned.

The Publications the Audiences Couldn't Read: A Washington Department of Ecology dry cleaners outreach campaign included manuals and other printed materials, but none of the materials were printed in Korean. As a result, Korean-owned dry cleaners could not use them.

The Workshops Few Attended: Oregon DEQ scheduled three technical assistance programs for printers. Attendance was sparse because the workshops took place during work hours.
Lesson: Understand your audience's needs and tailor your approach and materials accordingly.

Find a Hook: Oregon DEQ planned a Small Business Assistance Program training session, but attendance was sparse.
Lesson: Give people a compelling reason to attend. For example, business people will want to hear about regulations. Use that as a vehicle for a P2 message.

Money Talks: Oregon DEQ attracted 50 business people to a training session, by working with the local chamber of commerce and advertising the session as a way to improve businesses. Attendees were charged $50 to attend.
Lesson: Market events in ways that speak to the target audience's concerns. Consider charging for services, as a way to communicate the event's value.

The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions: After finding seriously deficient hazardous waste management practices at Department of Transportation (DOT) facilities, Oregon DEQ instituted an extensive technical assistance program. The program, however, resulted in little change. Only after a fine was imposed did DOT clean up. DEQ realized the assistance program should have targeted regional DOT managers, who had the authority to order changes.
Lesson: Identify people in your audience and who can effect change, and target them.

The Jailhouse Rocks: A furniture shop manager in a state prison was convinced that the shop could save money and look good by reducing waste and pollution. The shop owner became a waste reduction champion and eventually worked as an in-house consultant for the state penal system.
Lesson: Find and cultivate internal champions.

Additional details on this topic are available in the full meeting minutes.


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